A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Aug. 7: An integrated group was refused service at Tom's
Restaurant and Elkin Theater.
Two or three canisters of tear gas were found on the lawn of Freedom House.
Local police arrived and removed the canisters before fingerprints could
be taken by the FBI.
Two local African-American voter registration workers were stopped and
given speeding tickets after they and approximately 20 other African-Americans
attempted to integrate the downstairs section of the Elkins movie theater.
They were driving 25 mph in a 30 mph zone. CDC lawyer, Abe Weitzman, and
law student, Richard Wheelock, were harassed as they observed the integration
attempt. They were stopped and questioned by police and their car was
kicked by local white citizens. Weitzman and Wheelock were followed to
Columbus by a police car and a carload of whites. A third local African-American
who participated in integration attempt was ticketed for having improper
lights even though his lights were in working order.
Joel Bernard, a white volunteer, was attacked by a local white man while
engaged in voter registration canvassing. Bernard was with a local African-American
filling out a Freedom Registration form when a white man drove up in pick
up truck and questioned him about what he was doing. Bernard was struck
to the ground and punched several times. He managed to break away, and
was searching for a telephone when a police car passed. While he was explaining
the incident to the police, his attacker - who had been following in his
truck - came out and began threatening him once again. Bernard was taken
to the police station for questioning, was refused use of the telephone,
and was refused an escort back to the office. He sustained bruises and
a grazed arm.
African-American registrants were taken to the courthouse and found it
closed. Officials there said the registrar was sick and there was no deputy
registrar to aid them.
Theater closed down rather than integrate. There were two previous failed
integration attempts on August 6th and August 11th.
voter registration workers waited outside the courthouse the night before
as local African-American volunteer, Leon Smith, was tried for a traffic
violation. As the civil rights workers waited outside, a large group of
whites carrying baseball bats gathered around the courthouse. Local volunteer,
Sammy Bets, tried to attend the trial and was subsequently fired from
his job for an unknown reason. His white employer was in the crowd of
whites outside the courthouse last night.
local voter registration workers were given traffic tickets as they drove
home from a registration meeting last night. It was the third time this
week that this form of harassment has been used by police.
young African-American voter registration workers, Adair Howell, Andrew
Moore and Essie Carr, were arrested as they canvassed for potential registrants.
The trio saw police coming and went to one of their homes. Police entered
the home and arrested the workers. They were charged with disturbing the
peace and forcing an African-American woman to sign the registration form.
Local officials denied knowledge of the whereabouts of the workers after
their arrest. Howell and Moore were located by the FBI in Amory City jail.
They were held under $100 bond each. Miss Carr was released to the custody
of her parents.
local African-American civil rights workers, Louis Grant and Bob Wright,
were arrested while handing out leaflets advertising Freedom Day in Rolling
Fork. The leaflets urged voter registration. (Bond was later set at $200
on an anti-littering charge.)
local person helping voter registration received an obvious harassment
ticket for illegal parking outside the courthouse.
was a report of a local African-American man who was beaten and went missing.
County Sheriff Carl Hubbard detained several persons that were housing
civil rights workers and spent most of night in the courtyard where many
workers were living.
July 4:A volunteer
and a local worker were chased 30 miles by an unidentified car.
movie theater that had an upstairs area for African-Americans only offered
admission to whites.
July 18: Eight
people were detained one and one half hours by the sheriff who was trying
to find out if there is a state ordinance against the passing out of leaflets.
The statute was not found and the people were released into a crowd of
whites standing about. A local volunteer was hit hard in the jaw by a
marshals threatened volunteers at a mass meeting in Crowder, a town 13-15
July 26: A
tear gas bomb exploded behind the home that five civil rights workers
were living in, forcing the occupants to leave. The Sheriff and a deputy
arrived approximately 30 minutes later, found the grenade still hot, and
handled it a good deal so that the FBI found it covered with police fingerprints.
and county meetings were held.
July 31: Three
shots were fired the night before last at an African-American home where
five volunteers were staying. On July 26, this same home was bombed with
tear gas. A local white had reportedly threatened to kill the homeowner
if he did not oust the volunteers.
project director, Charles Weaver, and summer volunteer, Benjamin Graham,
were arrested while trying to get names of 25 potential African-American
voter registrants lined up outside the courthouse. Weaver was arrested
while talking with another volunteer who had been ordered out of the courthouse
by the registrar. Graham was arrested when he inquired what police were
doing to Weaver. Both were charged with interfering with an officer. (The
registrar was under federal injunction to facilitate registration).
June 26: Three
people were arrested for disturbing the peace. Two were released without
charges while the third was held on $100 bond.
cars followed voter registration workers continuously, surrounding them
at every house at which they stopped. Four to five cars of local white
citizens also followed the workers. That morning, police Chief Nichols
reportedly told workers to get out of town and that he was planning to
bomb the house. The day before Nichols entered the house for a second
time without a warrant. He said the house is a public place and that a
warrant is unnecessary. The house was located about one block outside
city limits. That evening three voter registration workers were surrounded
for several hours by 12 truckloads of armed whites as they sat in Wimpy's
Cafe. A crowd gathered as workers stopped at a filling station just inside
city limits. The workers entered the cafe to report the situation to the
Greenwood SNCC office. The sheriff closed the cafe after discussing it
with the owner. One local African-American citizen was reportedly hit
on the side of the head with a blackjack.
rights volunteers in the White Community Program were turned away from
a local hotel.
volunteer was picked up while canvassing and informed of complaints by
local residents. The volunteer was later released.
people were arrested in a traffic harassment case.
voter registration worker was chased and threatened by two men in a pick-up
White Community Project worker was arrested for trespassing in a white
restaurant where he had worked for one day. The owner had discovered he
was a civil rights worker and turned him in to police when he went back
to the restaurant for work.
rental of a local store for a precinct meeting was cancelled by the store's
owner when a SNCC poster was put up.
molotov cocktail exploded in the basement of Sweet Rest Church of Christ's
Holiness. A fire broke out, causing minor damage to the Church.
African-American youth was killed in a hit and run accident.
Grove Missionary Baptist Church was burned to ground the night before.
The fire department came to the scene and left before the fire was put
out, stating they had been called too late. A butane tank was found buried
next to church. The FBI began to investigate the arson.
Matthews Baptist Church was burned to the ground the night before. A fire
department spokesman told the Associated Press that the department was
unable to stop the fire.
Plan Missionary Baptist Church burned to the ground. Whites had sought
to buy it, but the Arfican-Americans would not sell it.
civil rights car was hit by a bullet.
volunteers were picked up by police and told that all out of town visitors
must register with them. The volunteers registered and were released.
phone calls were made throughout the night before.
local police turned on their sirens and played music on loudspeakers near
COFO office and then failed to answer phone calls complaining of the disturbance.
small firebomb was thrown at the Freedom House lawn.
volunteer was arrested on traffic charges while delivering freedom school
summer volunteers and a visitor were refused admission to First Methodist
Church. Volunteers had been welcomed a week earlier.
man was threatened with job loss if he continued to attend Freedom School.
He stayed in Freedom School regardless of the threat.
white men pursued five civil rights workers in a car en route to their
reported that they were beaten by police the night before following an
arrest with a truck carrying freedom registration supplies, books, and
other miscellaneous materials. Bond was set at $150 each.
white volunteer and an African-American CORE staff member were harassed
by a group of white men while canvassing for voter registration. The workers
were on the porch of some potential African-American registrants when
the group of whites drove up. The CORE staffer was struck five times with
a wooden cane by one of the whites.
July 25: The
first MFDP county convention adopted a resolution of loyalty to the principles
of the National Democratic Party for strong and enforceable civil rights
plank in its platform. Approximately 300 people attended. 102 of them
were voting delegates elected by precincts.
Church Council of Canton voted in June to keep all summer civil rights
workers from attending services. One Presbyterian Church took exception
and admitted volunteers until this day, when two white volunteers were
turned away by three white men who told the volunteers that they had caused
too much dissension in church. At a Methodist Church four white volunteers
were refused attendance for the third week in a row. As they left the
church a group assembled around their car and shoved them into it, slamming
the door with such force the window cracked. Their car was followed to
its destination by a pick-up truck.
arrival at the bus station, five National Council of Churches ministers
were threatened by seven local whites. When ministers tried to leave the
station in a car with two local African-American housewives, their car
was trapped in a narrow alley for two hours. One local white stopped his
car in front of them, the other stopped in rear of the vehicle. Separate
crowds of 100 whites and 50 African-Americans gathered. A local African-American
alerted CORE staff who sent a pick-up truck to the scene and persuaded
the local sheriff to let the ministers drive out of alley.
civil rights workers, five white and one African-American, were jailed
after handing out Freedom Registration forms in downtown Canton.
Aug. 2:A shot
was fired from a car passing approximately 50 feet from Freedom House.
White America was produced that night by the Free Southern Theatre.
White America was presented that night by the Free Southern Theatre.
18 year-old Gluckstadt Freedom School student was arrested for alleged
reckless driving and attempting to run Constable Bruno Holly off the road.
The Gluckstadt Freedom School site was burned to ground two days before
bullet was fired at the Freedom House at approximately 10 p.m. from a
passing car. There were no injuries or apparent damage. The police came
immediately upon being informed and were cooperative with those at the
1:30 a.m. a pick-up truck drove into the driveway of the Freedom House.
A local African-American citizen saw a "third light" inside
the truck in addition to two headlights. When the truck's occupants noticed
all the observers they quickly drove off and were reportedly observed
trying to put out a fire in the bed of the truck. When witnesses got to
the street, they found a broken gallon jug with oily rags sticking out
at the top.
worker George Johnson was shot at three times on his way to the Freedom
House. He was approximately three blocks from the house when a car pulled
up from behind and fired three shots from approximately 500 feet away.
Johnson identified the car as a police car since it was equipped with
a searchlight and a red warning light on top. Johnson, who both heard
the shots and saw the flash of the bullets, ducked into nearby bushes
and sought shelter in a local house. Approximately 10 minutes later he
started back to Freedom House down another street and stated that he saw
"the same police car which came past me at 50 or 60 miles per hour,
shining its spotlight on me." Johnson entered another local home
for refuge. Late the week before Johnson, in response to Canton CORE office
policies, registered with the police as a civil rights worker and gave
the Freedom House as his home address.
Edward K. Heininger, a NCC volunteer, and summer volunteer, John Polacheck,
were brutally beaten in the office of Dr. Thaggard Sr. in Madden. Polacheck
had gone to the clinic the day before for medical treatment, but left
when he was told to go to the African-American waiting room. (He was white).
He came back with the minister, and both were met in the waiting room
by the doctor who began berating Heininger for his civil rights work.
While they were talking, Heininger was hit from behind. Polacheck estimated
that between 5 and 10 men beat them for approximately 5 minutes. Heininger
reported that the doctor pushed him from the front into the punches of
his assailants. Heininger was knocked unconscious and suffered severe
injuries to the left eye with possible internal injuries, severe lacerations
on the scalp and face, contusions on the back of the neck, a bad cut on
his left ear, and swelling of the mouth and lips with possible injury
to the gums. Polacheck got to their car, parked outside the clinic and
pulled in the minister, who was on his back outside the car. One of several
whites standing around the car grabbed the keys. A deputy sheriff arrived,
handcuffed Heininger and Polacheck, and jailed them for disturbing the
peace. The doctor had reported they had used profanity. They were released
on cash bond of $100 each after being brought to the station in an unofficially
marked pick-up truck and car. Their trial was set for Aug. 27.
Aug. 12:Twenty-four African-Americans attempted to register at
Tallahatchie County Courthouse the day before. Approximately 93 armed
whites gathered to intimidate them. Cars and trucks with guns prominently
displayed were double and triple parked in front of the courthouse. Potential
registrants were able to take the test quickly as the registrar was under
federal injunction to cease discrimination. The sheriff was also under
federal injunction restraining him from intimidating African-American
volunteers were arrested on vagrancy charges while engaged in voter registration
work. The volunteers were held 3 1/2 hours and released.
local pastor and civil rights leader was arrested for recklessness and
drunk driving. He was not a drinker.
July l:A pickup-truck
tried to run down a SNCC worker and volunteer. The license plate was hidden.
July 4:A local
manager said African-Americans going to the courthouse would be discharged:
"I have a large contract with the head of the White Citizens' Council,
and I'm not going to lose thousands of dollars for one of you."
July 6:A station
wagon played "chicken" with civil rights workers going home.
sheriff insulted and threatened a white minister driving an integrated
July 8: There
was a bomb threat called in to the Freedom House.
police chief in Lafayette told African-American cafes not to serve civil
July 9: A civil
rights volunteer was arrested for taking pictures in a court room. The
photos were taken in the hall after the police chief sprayed room deodorant
on two girls.
police chief visited an office when another white man came to turn off
were removed from the local library and several young National Association
for the Advancement of Colored People members were refused service at
NAACP member testing the segregation of a barber shop was driven out of
the shop at gun-point.
African-American volunteer was chased out of a white laundromat and picked
up by police for failure to signal a turn. The volunteer was taken to
jail and beaten. The volunteer was charged with resisting arrest and was
released on $64 bond.
chief voter registrar closed the courthouse for several days. The stated
reason was that court was in session and there was no time for registration.
owner of the electric company had a project leader pointed out to him,
then threatened the project leader by showing him his knife.
traffic arrest was made. The charge was an improper turn.
female workers of the newly formed Clarksdale Youth Action Group were
arrested for trespassing outside a local cafe in the African-American
section of town.
volunteer was arrested for running a red light and paid a fine.
hundred-sixty people attended precinct meetings of the Mississippi Freedom
bottle was thrown through an office window the night before.
Aug. 3:A white
Church of Christ minister and white summer volunteer were refused admission
to the white Church of Christ. Church members felt they were exploiting
Delano Roosevelt III was arrested and fined for speeding while going 25
mph in 35 mph zone. Roosevelt had been doing research on a project to
bring aid to civil rights workers.
Committee for Human Rights physicians, Richard Moore and Les Hoffman,
were arrested for loitering while in their car was outside the Freedom
House. They were released on $16 bond each. The trial was set for August
Freedom Day, 25 to 30 people picketed without incident. About 20 of them
were from the Shaw group register. More than 50 people from other communities
came, 30 of them registered. The process was slow but polite. Ten regular
and 45 auxiliary police allowed only those registering or picketing on
Aug. 4: Fifty
potential African-American registrants lined up at the courthouse, accompanied
by 13 civil rights workers. African-Americans were admitted one by one
at 45 minute intervals. Leaflets were given to them without incident.
However when civil rights workers moved across the street, all 13 were
arrested for distributing pamphlets among pedestrians. Charges were based
on an anti-litter ordinance. Bond was set for $300 each.
Aug. 4:A car
with 3 or 4 armed whites circled the house of a local female volunteer
between midnight and 1 a.m. and parked 100 yards from her home.
preliminary hearing was held on the fatal shooting of 60 year-old African-American,
Neimiah Montgomery, by Officer Leonard Yarborrow of the Marigold police
force. Montgomery had been shot by Yarborrow the day before. Witnesses
testified that Montgomery went berserk soon after he drove into the station,
when an attendant asked to be paid. Montgomery reportedly ran across the
highway to his trailer and got a hammer, then threatened to kill a woman.
The service station attendant got an axe handle, and he and Montgomery
struggled for it. Officer Yarborrow arrived and reportedly tried to subdue
Montgomery. The officer shot him twice, both bullets going into his heart.
This was declared justifiable homicide while acting in line of duty.
local African-American reported that Willie Carter, another African-American
Cleveland resident, was offered $20 by Shaw Chief of Police W.H. Griffin
to get rid of three local African-Americans: Elijah Smith, Aaron German,
and Charles Bond. These three locals were active in voter registration
activity. Carter reportedly accepted the offer, but a second man reported
the incident to COFO.
Church of the Holy Ghost was a site of arson. Kerosene was spilled on
the floor and lit after a local white pastor spoke to an African-American
bible class. This was the fifth firebombing in ten days.
M1 rifles and 1,000 rounds of ammunition were stolen from the National
voter registration workers were arrested for distributing literature without
a city permit. Bond was set at $400 each.
carloads of whites drove up on the lawn of the Freedom House. Five fled
before the police arrived. Police questioned and released two men in the
serving volunteers were threatened with violence.
impounded a volunteer's car and claimed it was stolen, because the transfer
papers were not notarized.
July 5:A St.
Louis (Mo.) African-American en route to a funeral was beaten by whites
who mistook him for a Freedom Rider. He was fined $75.
volunteers were arrested on trespassing charges after stopping at a gas
station for a soft drink. There was friendly conversation there until
the attendant said, "You boys should be on the road." They left
immediately. The attendant filed charges. Bail was set at $500 to $1000
voter registration workers were detained in jail in Aberdeen for four
hours after being picked up as suspicious strangers and refusing to be
driven out of town and were left on the highway by police.
arrested an African-American volunteer for driving without a license and
charged a SNCC project director with allowing him to do so. Bail was set
at $300 and $100, respectively.
volunteer, Ron Bridgeforth, had gone to the courthouse to pay a parking
fine. He refused to be photographed and fingerprinted and was jailed at
Starkville. Bond was set at $500.
voter registration volunteer, John Luther Bell, was one of three outstanding
students selected as delegates to the Freedom School convention in Meridian.
He was arrested while canvassing for potential African-American registrants.
Bell was jailed at nearby West Point on charges of larceny and disturbing
Attorney, Tom Connelly, was arrested on charges of reckless driving after
a pick-up truck rammed into his parked car. Local white citizen, Travis
Hamilton, ran his truck into Connelly's car, smashing the door and shattering
a window. Passenger and law student, Richard Wheeler, was cut on the arm
by flying glass. Connelly was released after several hours on $110 bond.
As Connelly was being driven home from the District Attorney's office
by summer volunteer, Steve Fraser, their car was met by a highway patrol
roadblock. Fraser was given a ticket for improper license.
Cluke Arden and white volunteer, Bruce Amundson, were turned away yesterday
from a Lutheran Church after being questioned at length by the minister
and church elders. Amundson was asked to apologize for having brought
an African-American to the church the previous Sunday.
group of 30 African-American, high school students were followed by six
police cars, one containing the sheriff and a police dog, as they walked
to a voter registration meeting the previous night. Police remained outside
the meeting for over 2 hours and later returned to the cafe where the
group had first gathered. Police entered the cafe and told students who
had just returned from the meeting that they were to go home.
highway patrol officer killed a 34 year-old African-American with a history
of mental illness. The mother asked to see the body, but the police ordered
the woman to go away. The death was ruled justifiable homicide 17 hours
July 21: Three
African-American youths in the company of a white volunteer were picked
up and held for investigation at Club 400 by police. The volunteer was
later arrested for having improper tags. The African-American youths were
released on bond of an unknown amount.
volunteers and staff engaged in voter registration met open hostility
from whites. The crowd of white citizens' were in possession of weapons.
July 14: The
police chief and local citizens protested an Albuquerque Journal article
based on a volunteer's letter home. The volunteer said the letter was
July 14: Police
picked up James Dann for distributing literature without a permit. Later
seven people were arrested for distributing literature without a permit
and blocking the sidewalk. Bond was set at $100 - $200.
July 15: Twenty-five
people were arrested for willfully and unlawfully using the sidewalks
and the streets during a voter registration rally. The Citizens Council
met at 9 a.m.
affidavit was received from the parent of one of the African-American
children arrested after a July 15th rally. The mayor and city attorney
called a meeting of parents and told them defense would not be provided
unless children signed a statement disavowing association with "the
communists coming into town." According to the affidavit, the city
attorney called Congressman Don Edwards (D Cal) a communist and said Edwards
had been a secretary for Fidel Castro. A summer volunteer and rabbi were
forcibly ejected from the room when they tried to attend the meeting.
African-American SNCC volunteer and Ruleville, African-American volunteer
were arrested in Drew for distributing leaflets for the Mississippi Freedom
Democratic Party on public property without a permit. The total bond for
the two was $600.
student, Len Edwards, made a U-turn at a speed of 5 miles per hour and
was arrested for reckless driving after being followed by the local police
civil rights worker's car was stopped on the highway for repairs. The
driver was charged with illegal parking and paid a $60 bond.
July 23: A
volunteer was assailed today while canvassing for voter registration.
Two white men approached him and asked what it would take to get him out
of town. The volunteer replied he was not quite ready to leave. After
approximately 10 minutes of talk, one man punched him. The men left after
several minutes of blows.
police and local citizens ordered an SNCC worker out of his house. He
fled, but when his car was recovered two days later, his camera, food,
and personal documents were missing.
Aug. 11: Mt.
Pleasant Church in Gluckstadt burned to ground the night before. It had
been used daily as a Freedom School site. Within minutes after leaving
the site white volunteer, Jim Ohls, was arrested for reckless driving.
was a demonstration at the federal building. No harassment was reported.
report says that on June 19th an African-American porter at Greenville
General Hospital was beaten by a policeman with billy club. The porter
was charged with resisting arrest and disturbing the peace.
citizens tested several restaurants to see if they were following new
desegregation laws. The eating places were closed either before or after
Freedom Day one hundred-one people took the test, but 100 more came too
late. No arrests were made.
shots were fired at a car that workers used to attend a mass meeting.
Two workers were threatened by the white mob who said they would form
at the place where the workers were staying.
local African American was arrested for forgery while passing out voter
registration leaflets with several other local citizens. After being questioned
about civil rights activity, he was released for lack of evidence on the
Freedom Democratic Party precinct meetings took place.
Aug. 2:A county
meeting and a meeting of the MFDP took place.
student, Len Edwards, and three LCDC lawyers were refused a room after
having made a prior reservation at Holiday Inn. The manager saw an African-American
in their car.
white summer volunteer was harassed by three white men while putting up
a voter registration poster.
Freedom House received a harassing phone call saying "You'd better
not go to sleep or you won't get up" .
voter registration worker was picked up by police and released after questioning.
phone harassments and a bomb threat were documented.
visiting Congressmen witnessed voter registration and called it discriminatory.
tagless cars drove continually past the Freedom House office.
July 6:A harassment
call was received that stated "I just shot one of your workers..."
July 7: Six
young students picketing the jailhouse and three others were arrested.
July 9:A local
insurance salesman slugged a volunteer during a voter canvas. The salesman
then followed the volunteer and beat him again.
SNCC staff member was arrested on a public profanity charge. A policeman
overheard him say, "We've got to get some damn organization in our
office". Bail was set at $15.
local African-American woman accompanied by two volunteers was hit in
the chest by a white man. There was no police cooperation in getting assailants.
bomb threat was documented.
Freedom Day there were 111 arrests, including 13 juveniles. The group
included 98 adults, 9 of which were SNCC staff and 13 volunteers.
McGhee, a local resident, was picked up by three whites, forced to enter
the cab of their pick-up truck at gun-point and was beaten with a pipe
and a plank. The incident occurred just after he left the FBI office.
McGhee returned to the FBI office and agents took him to the hospital.
He had been active in attempts to integrate the theatre.
July 17: Fifteen
staff and volunteers were on a hunger strike until they were let out of
jail. They had been there since they were arrested during massive freedom
and Drew mass arrest cases had been removed to Federal court and bond
reduced to $200 out of state and $100 for residents.
arrest victims were still at the city jail and county farm. There were
no visiting privileges at the Farm. Among those at the Farm was a 78 year-old
man who was in need of medicine.
July 20: Both
barrels of a shotgun were fired at a worker's car.
trial of the mass arrest victims was held despite the filing of a petition
to remove the case to federal courts. Defendants remained mute on the
basis of violation of constitutional rights. They were convicted of the
violation of picket law and were sentenced 30 days, and a $100 fine.
windows of three African-American cafes were broken. The windows of a
volunteer's car were also broken.
to 15 workers handing out Freedom Registration forms prompted at least
three incidents: 1) SNCC worker Eli Zeretsky was approached by three whites
who took his clip board from him and tore up the forms. Police stood by
and refused to act unless Zeretsky knew the assailants' names and filed
a complaint with a judge; 2) White volunteer, Adam Kline, was jumped from
behind and hit on the head. Police refused aid him; 3) Volunteer, William
Hodes, was threatened by local whites in the presence of police who refused
to make an arrest and refused to give the names of the citizens involved
so that a complaint could be filed.
July 25: A
shot was fired at the home of Silas McGhee, the young man whose beating
in the local movie theater prompted the first arrests under the 1964 Civil
McGee, the young man whose July 16 beating led to first arrests under
civil rights act, and his brother Jake were mobbed by 150, 200 whites
as they left the theater and were walking to their car. Jake was hit repeatedly
by the whites. Both received cuts and abrasions of the face and shoulders
and glass in their eyes when a coke bottle was thrown through the car
window. Both were treated at LeFlore Co. Hospital, then trapped there
with SNCC staff members until 1 a.m. as cars of armed whites blocked all
roads leading out of the hospital. The FBI, local police, highway patrol,
and sheriff's department refused protection out of the hospital until
1 a.m. After more than three hours of waiting behind locked doors, the
sheriff followed SNCC staff and McGee's cars to their destinations.
brick was thrown through the window of an African-American barbershop
in the neighborhood where Freedom Registration was held.
July 31: Silas
McGhee and a summer volunteer were arrested for driving with improper
vehicle licenses. Both cars had temporary 7 day Tennessee license tags.
An African-American, SNCC worker reported the arrests to the Greenwood
office over a car radio and was arrested for resisting arrest. Total bond
was set at $200.
local African-American volunteers were arrested for disorderly conduct
in front of a store belonging to police officer Henderson, who dragged
a pregnant African-American woman over the pavement during a Freedom Day
demonstration. At the police station, officers twisted one volunteer's
arms behind him, kicked him, shoved his head three times against a concrete
wall. They hit him in the mouth with a stick, shoved and kicked him into
a cell, kicked him 7 more times after he fell to floor and refused him
a doctor. Bail was originally set at $50 each. A white volunteer was arrested
the same night on an African-American business street. He was treated
roughly by police during the arrest. Officers pushed, kicked and stamped
on his feet at the station. The FBI visited him within minutes of his
confinement to ask if he had been beaten. Bond was originally set at $100.
When SNCC workers arrived to bail out all three, they discovered bond
had been raised to $200 each. All three were bailed out.
Aug. 2:A summer
volunteer was arrested on a Justice of the Peace warrant for assault with
a deadly weapon. The arrest was apparently connected with the breaking
of a window in a store owned by police officer Henderson. The volunteer
was not near store but had been calling the jail all night to obtain information
on the other arrests. She was held for four hours and released on $1,000
Lee Turner, the pregnant 15 year-old, African-American whom Officer Henderson
reportedly dragged across the pavement during Freedom Day, was arrested
while among a group of local youth gathered in front of Henderson's store.
Henderson came and ordered them to disperse. He reportedly dragged Mrs.
Turner to a waiting police car. She was held on $50 bond for disturbing
the peace. A police blockade, with tear gas equipment, was maintained
at Henderson's store for 2 hours
Aug. 2:A local
resident was arrested today while in his front yard. He reported that
a police car drove by and an officer made obscene gestures. The African-American
laughed, the car backed up, and the man was arrested for profanity. Bond
was set at $50.
after midnight four shots were fired at the SNCC office from a passing
Aug. 3:A white
volunteer was arrested on a John Doe warrant for assault and battery.
The arrest stemmed from his participation in the Freedom Registration
Drive. An elderly white man with a limp came up while the volunteer was
distributing FDP registration forms Aug.1 and stepped on his foot. He
asked if the volunteer wanted to "punch me in the face." The
volunteer did not reply. He was picked up across the street from Greenwood
SNCC office. Two police officers, one with a club, served the warrant
and grabbed him. He was held on $100 bond. (This was the 8th arrest in
Greenwood that weekend. At least three of the previous arrests involved
extensive police brutality at the jail.)
local African-American youths were arrested while singing in front of
Doris' store in Baptist Town. At least one youth was beaten. A doctor
and nurse were dispatched to the jail. The charges are unknown.
Aug. 13: A
production of In White America took place.
female owners of a grocery store open-fired on a crowd of 75,100 African-American
picketers. Their "Happy Day" store had been the object of a
civil rights boycott for the past several days. There were no injuries
reported. Police arrived shortly after the shooting and dispersed picketers.
staffer, Jesse Harris, was arrested for disturbing the peace. An arrest
was made under a warrant presumably in connection with a boycott that
was currently in operation against several stores.
Aug. 15: Silas
McGhee was shot in the face as he sat in his car outside Lulu's restaurant.
McGhee was alone in the car when a shot was fired by a white man in a
passing car. He was rushed to University Hospital in Jackson in critical
condition. McGhee was initially brought to Leflore Hospital. The staff
was reportedly unable to remove the bullet, which entered through the
left side of the face near the temple and lodged near the left side of
the throat. Two SNCC staffers were refused admittance to the hospital
because they were not wearing shirts; they had taken off their shirts
to help stop McGhee's bleeding.
McGhee, the younger brother of Silas, was arrested for a traffic violation.
His mother, Mrs. Laura McGhee, was hit in the chest by a desk sergeant
when she went to pay the fine. Mrs. McGhee hit the officer in the nose,
and the officer went for his gun. Greenwood staff members, George Greene
and Ed Rudd, held the policeman's hand until another officer came in and
calmed him down. Jake was fined $100 for having an improper license and
for impersonation. A warrant was issued for Mrs. McGhee's arrest for assaulting
a police officer.
SNCC staff member was arrested for speeding.
threatened to hurt the children of a lady housing civil rights workers.
The workers planned to move elsewhere.
voter registration workers were threatened. A man grabbed a volunteer's
shirt and threatened him. The workers ran.
people were arrested for refusing to leave the local people and cross
the street on police orders as they neared the court house. They were
held on $500 bond for violating the anti-picketing law.
urged a volunteer to leave for his own protection, or face charges of
inciting a riot
civil rights worker was arrested for putting posters on a telephone pole.
This act supposedly violated a city ordinance. Bond was set at $50.
meetings were held.
county and MFDP meeting was held.
July 30: A
local African-American volunteer was forced into a car at gunpoint the
previous night. The man was blindfolded and taken into a room at a location
that he supposed was Biloxi. Five men questioned him at length about COFO
activities The men offered to pay him well for information about people
and organizations who contacted COFO. He was not injured or molested,
except for one man repeatedly poking him with a gun. FBI investigated.
was a Free Southern Theater production of In White America.
White America, a Free Southern Theater production, played at Freedom
Steve Miller, was badly beaten by a passing white man as he left Carnegie
Library. Miler sustained severe bruises on his jaw, head, and right temple.
He also suffered from amnesia. A county police officer arrived at the
scene but left without providing any aid. A taxi refused to take him to
the hospital. Civil rights workers arrived at the hospital with Miller
about one hour after the beating. They waited another two hours for a
doctor. The assailant walked by a police officer and bragged about his
crime. The workers went to the city police, who refused to take action
for lack of complaint. A warrant was filed by one of the witnesses that
the assailant had swung at but not hit. Miller was not capable of filing
a warrant. The sheriff's office investigated.
man who beat volunteer, Steve Miller, was arrested and charged with assault.
Gulfport resident , James Robert Thomas, was released on $200 bond. Thomas
had only been charged with assault as a warrant against him was filed
by Miller's companion Charles Wheeler, who was not hit. Miller swore out
a warrant when able.
African-American, Aaron Jones, was arrested while handing out leaflets
announcing a performance by a caravan of music folksingers. Jones was
in Juvenile Court custody on a delinquency charge.
African-American voter registration worker, John Handy, was arrested for
disturbing the peace and held on $300 bond. The arrest came a few hours
after Handy spoke with African-Americans outside Henderson's store in
Greenwood, which had been boycotted for more than six weeks. The owner,
a Greenwood police officer, dragged a pregnant African-American woman
across the pavement on Freedom Day. When Handy stopped outside store,
Henderson told him a warrant would be issued for his arrest. (Charges
were dropped August 25th).
African-American voter registration workers, Luther Adams, Clifton Johnson,
Jonnie Campbell, and Charles Wheeler, were refused service at Albrught
and Wood Drug store. They were served water and asked to leave.
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